Saturday, 5 August 2017

Select top N records from each category in PL/SQL

Background

Lets say you have 2 tables -
  1. EMPLOYEE
  2. EMPLOYEE_SALARY
EMPLOYEE table has employee id which is a primary key and his name.  EMPLOYEE_SALARY has employee id which is foreign key to id in EMPLOYEE table. This table has employee department and salary. You need to write a query that returns top 2 employees from each department that has highest salary.

Tables creation and data insertion

Table Queries :

create table schema8.EMPLOYEE(ID int, name varchar2(255));
alter table schema8.EMPLOYEE ADD CONSTRAINT PRIMARY_KEY PRIMARY KEY (ID);
create table schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY(EMPLOYEE_ID int, department varchar2(255), salary int);
alter table schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY ADD CONSTRAINT FK_EMP_ID FOREIGN KEY (EMPLOYEE_ID) REFERENCES schema8.EMPLOYEE(ID);

Data Queries for  EMPLOYEE table:

insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(1,'Aniket');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(2,'John');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(3,'Sam');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(4,'Ron');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(5,'Sky');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(6,'Paul');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(7,'Dan');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(8,'Jess');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(9,'Troy');
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE values(10,'Mike');

 Data Queries for EMPLOYEE_SALARY table:

insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(1,'IT',10000);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(2,'Admin',500);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(3,'Sales',1200);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(4,'Sales',1500);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(5,'IT',9000);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(6,'Admin',4000);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(7,'Admin',5000);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(8,'IT',9500);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(9,'Sales',1000);
insert into schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY values(10,'Admin',6000);

Final data :
select * from schema8.EMPLOYEE;
select * from schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY;


Solution

We are going to use RANK to partition by department and order by salary - 

select * from (
select id , name, department, salary, RANK() over (partition by department order by salary desc) as rank from(
select e.id, e.name, es.department,es.salary from schema8.EMPLOYEE e left OUTER join schema8.EMPLOYEE_SALARY es on (e.id=es.employee_id))
) where rank <= 2;




First we have done a left outer join so that we capture all employee records with their respective salaries and departments. In outer query we have ranked it based on their salaries in respective department. Finally we select all records that have rank <=2 i.e top 2 records.




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