Sunday, 26 May 2019

How to remove computer name from prompt in Ubuntu terminal


If you are using Ubuntu terminal you must have noticed that terminal prompt looks like below -

Notice that prompt looks like -


The problem is this is fairly large and with more folders inside the root directory, there is much less space to type actual commands. In this post, I will show how to fix this.

How to remove computer name from prompt in Ubuntu terminal

To fix this you need to edit ~/.bashrc file. In this file there is a variable called PS1 that governs how your command prompt looks like. If you open ~/.bashrc you should see something like below -

if [ "$color_prompt" = yes ]; then
    PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[\033[01;32m\]\u@\h\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\w\[\033[00m\]\$ '
    PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$ '
unset color_prompt force_color_prompt

# If this is an xterm set the title to user@host:dir
case "$TERM" in
    PS1="\[\e]0;${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h: \w\a\]$PS1"

Let me explain a little bit about PS1 variable and above itself.

  • debian_chroot: This is applicable if you are running chroot operation (Your root directory is different than the default one). If you do not know chroot then do not worry, this is just and empty variable and can be ignored for now. 
  • XTERM: This is for a terminal emulator. If you are using XTERM PS1 under this would take effect.
  • color_prompt: This would be the default case for most. Your terminal would support color prompt. So PS1 under "$color_prompt" = yes is something you need to edit. 
If you have not heard above, don't worry about it just change the PS1 variable under the color_propmt if statement.

  • \u: expands to the current username
  • \h: expands to the current hostname
  • \w: expands to the current working directory
  • \$: expands to # for root and $ for all other users

Now that you know what each means and once you have figured out which PS1 to change you can simply remove "@\h" from it.

So change

if [ "$color_prompt" = yes ]; then

    PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[\033[01;32m\]\u@\h\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\w\[\033[00m\]\$ '


if [ "$color_prompt" = yes ]; then

    PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[\033[01;32m\]\u\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\w\[\033[00m\]\$ '

Once done save it, and run -

  • source ~/.bashrc
or simply open a new terminal and you should see the change.

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Customizing tray/taskbar date display in Ubuntu to show the actual date


In my Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS, I see that the date/time displayed on the desktop on the taskbar above is like - "Sun 12.00 PM".


You have to actually click on it to see the current date. In this post, I will show you how to add a date to the format that you see on the top. It would have been much easier if Ubuntu gave us this customization in settings itself, but unfortunately, that is not the case, at least not yet.

Customizing tray/taskbar date display in Ubuntu to show the actual date

There are two ways you can do this. I will show the most user-friendly method first.  But if you are more comfortable with Linux command line terminal and executing commands go to 2. advance section below.

1. User-Friendly - GUI Way

If you do not prefer using the command line, then you can install a GUI based tool. The tool name is "gnome-tweak-tool". You can search for "GNOME tweaks" in the Ubuntu software center. Install it.

Launch it and you should see the following screen. Go to Top Bar for date settings.

You can change the configuration as needed. You can see there are a bunch of other options here as well - like show battery percentage. All yours to play with :)

NOTE: If you do not prefer the Ubuntu software center but apt-get to install software, you can use the following command to install and launch the above application.

sudo apt install gnome-tweak-tool
gnome-tweaks  #  now launch it

2. Advanced - CLI Way

There are two commands that you need to know here -
  1. gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface clock-show-date true
    • makes the date appear
  2. gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface clock-show-seconds true
    • switches the seconds display on
You can similarly replace "set" by "get" to see the current values. By default, both values are set to false which is why you don't see a date or seconds.

Now let's go ahead and set these values to true and see the change of date/time format in the taskbar above.

And the result is -

I personally don't like seconds showing up. Just date works for me, so I have set accordingly. You can have settings that best suit you. You can do a similar thing with battery percentage as well with following command -

  • gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface show-battery-percentage true

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Saturday, 25 May 2019

How to fix hitting arrow keys adds characters in vi editor issue in Ubuntu


I just purchased a new Laptop and the obvious next thing to do was add Ubuntu to it. There are some common problems that everyone faces when a new Ubuntu OS is installed and one such problem is -  hitting arrow keys adds characters in vi the editor. In this post, I will show you how to fix this issue.

Fixing hitting arrow keys adds characters in vi editor issue

To fix this issue, edit a file called vim.rc in your root folder. If it's not present create one. You can use the following command.

  • vi ~/.vimrc
Now add the following content to it -

  • set nocompatible
If backspace is not working add following content -

  • set backspace=2

And that's it. Save the file and you should be good to go. 

Another cleaner way is just to install vim -
  • sudo apt-get install vim
Now that the problem is resolved, let's try to understand the issue here. vi as an editor has normal and insert mode. When you open a file using vi you are in normal mode. Here you can go to any line, use any arrow keys and the behavior is as expected. Now when you type "i", you essentially go into insert mode. In this mode, vi does not expect you to go left, right, top, bottom using arrow keys. You can always do that by pressing "ESC" and going back to normal mode. Insert mode is just to add text to your file and that's the behavior of vi.

Hope this helps :)

Saturday, 13 April 2019

How to install Oracle Java 11 in Ubuntu


In one of my previous posts I had covered how you can install Java 8 in your Ubuntu machine. In this post I will show how you can install Java 11 which is the latest SE version released (April 2019).

Oracle Java 11 is first LTS (Long term support) of Oracle Java release. 

NOTE: Oracle uses a commercial license now. You can download and use Oracle java for development and testing without any cost but to use it in production you need to pay a fee. 

If you do not want to pay you can always use Open JDK 11. From Java 11 forward, therefore, Oracle JDK builds and OpenJDK builds will be essentially identical. You can read more about this -

How to install Oracle Java 11 in Ubuntu

You can get Oracle Java 11 installer using linuxuprising PPA. To add this PPA execute following commands -

  • sudo add-apt-repository ppa:linuxuprising/java
  • sudo apt-get update

 To install the installer execute the following command -

  • sudo apt-get install oracle-java11-installer
You would need to accept the terms and conditions and continue with the installer. Once installed you can check the version of Java installed with following command -

  • java -version

To make Java 11 default you can install following package / execute following command -

  • sudo apt-get install oracle-java11-set-default
If you do not want this as default simply remove above pacakge  -
  • sudo apt-get remove oracle-java11-set-default

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Thursday, 28 March 2019

Writing unit tests for AWS Lambda in Node.js


In the last post, we saw -
In this post, we will see an extension of the same. We will see how we can extend this to write test cases for AWS Lambda functions. We are still going to use Chai and Mocha, but also some additional dependencies. Following is the list of final dependencies we need -

    "devDependencies": {
        "chai": "^4.2.0",
        "lambda-tester": "^3.5.0",
        "mocha": "^6.0.2",
        "mock-require": "^3.0.3"

Also, note these are dev dependencies. These are required only for development/testing. Here -
  • lambda-tester is used for simulating lambda behavior. You can use this to send mock events and handle the result or errors.
  • mock-require is used to mock any other dependencies your lambda might be depending on. For eg. any service or network call.

Writing unit tests for AWS Lambda in Node.js

Let's say following is our lambda code -

exports.handler = (event, context, callback) => {

    var searchId = event.pathParameters.searchId;

    if(searchId) {
        var result = {
            status : "success",
            code: 200,
            data: "Got searchId in the request"
    else {
        var result = {
            status : "failure",
            code: 400,
            data: "Missing searchId in the request"
        callback(result, null);


It's just a simple code that looks for searchId as the path parameter and if not found returns error. Now mocha tests for this lambda would look like -

const assert = require('chai').assert;
const expect = require('chai').expect;
const lambdaTester = require('lambda-tester');
const mockRequire = require('mock-require');

const index = require("../index");

describe("Lambda Tests", function(){

    describe("Successful Invocation", function(){
        it("Successful Invocation with results", function(done) {

            const mockData = {
                pathParameters : {
                    searchId : 10

            .expectResult((result) => {

                assert.equal(result.status, "success");
                assert.equal(result.code, 200);
                assert.equal(, "Got searchId in the request");

    describe("Failed Invocation", function(){
        it("Unsuccessful invocation", function(done) {

            const mockData = {
                pathParameters : {
                    newSearchId : 5

            .expectError((result) => {

                assert.equal(result.status, "failure");
                assert.equal(result.code, 400);
                assert.equal(, "Missing searchId in the request");



You need to follow the same conventions we saw in the last post. Create package.json, add dev dependencies mentioned above. Run npm install. Create a folder call test and add your test file in it (Content mentioned above). Once done you can run mocha at the root level.

If you see above I also mentioned we need "mock-require". This would be used if you actually need to mack a service. Let's say your lambda uses a custom logger -

const logger = require('customLogger').logger;

then you can mock this by -

const mockedLogger = {
          logger : {
                 log: function(message) {
                          console.log("message: " + message);

mockRequire('custom-logger', mockedLogger);

This could be a network service or a database query. You can mock it as per your requirement.

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